Last Updated 5/11/2022
Issue: Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and subsequent hurricanes have caused insurers to take steps to mitigate future losses in hurricane-prone areas. Hurricanes and tropical storms caused $ 159.1 billion in insured losses between 1994 and 2013, according to the Insurance Services Office. Over the last decade, more people and businesses have moved closer to shorelines, and property values have generally increased. As part of a broad effort to keep insurance coverage available and affordable, many insurers have recently added hurricane and named storm deductibles to limit potential losses through higher deductibles.
Hurricane deductibles were first initiated in 1992 after massive damages to South Florida properties caused major losses to insurance companies, but they became more widely accepted after Hurricane Katrina's $64 billion in insurance losses in 2005. Even though insurance companies relied on their reinsurers to help cover the claims arising from the hurricane's devastating effects,reinsurers still had trouble paying for the losses. Shortly thereafter, insurance companies started requiring hurricane deductibles from insureds.
While Superstorm Sandy in 2012 raised awareness of hurricane deductibles, there are still gaps in consumers’ knowledge of this topic. According to a survey conducted by the Insurance Research Council in 2017, over one-third of homeowners in some coastal states have never heard of hurricane or named-storm deductibles.
Hurricane and named storm deductibles were introduced as a risk-sharing mechanism by having the policyholder bear more of the risks, without raising overall premiums to unaffordable levels. However, insurers and consumers have issues with the use of hurricane deductibles. Insurers are concerned about clarity of state laws and actions of state officials that might limit the use of hurricane deductibles. Consumers are concerned about what to them seems an unjustified cost shifting at a time when they can least afford it. Consumers also complain about lack of meaningful disclosure about the deductibles.
Overview: A deductible is the amount of loss paid by the policyholder before any loss is paid by the insurer. For most perils (such as fire damage and theft), the standard deductible is a flat dollar amount (e.g., $500 or $1,000). This means a policyholder would be responsible for paying the flat dollar amount out-of-pocket for a loss.
In many coastal states, homeowners’ insurance policies also include deductibles that apply only to damage caused by hurricanes. A hurricane, or named storm, deductible is applied separately from standard perils deductibles and is typically a higher dollar amount, meaning a policyholder would be responsible for a larger portion of any loss. It can be expressed as a fixed dollar deductible or, more commonly, as a percentage of the home’s insured value, which can vary from 1% to as high as 10%.
Although definitions vary, a hurricane deductible typically applies to damage solely from a hurricane as categorized by the National Weather Service or U.S. National Hurricane Center. A named storm deductible, in addition to applying to categorized hurricanes, also applies to a weather event declared such as a typhoon, tropical storm or a tropical cyclone by the U.S. National Weather Service or the U.S. National Hurricane Center, and where a number or “name” has been applied (e.g., Hurricane Andrew, Superstorm Sandy, etc.). Any loss must have been caused or resulted from the named storm event.
Some policies also include a windstorm or wind/hail deductible. These usually apply to any kind of damage from a wind or hail event. For example, if a tree falls on a policyholder’s roof on a windy day, the claim would be subject to the wind deductible. Flood damage, however, is covered only if a separate flood insurance policy was purchased, generally from the National Flood Insurance Program or from a private company.
Whether a hurricane, named storm or windstorm deductible applies to a claim depends on the applicable “trigger” selected by the insurance company. These deductible apply only if certain parameters spelled out in the insurance contract are met, which are often proscribed or limited in state law. While there are similarities among the state laws, no two laws are identical; triggers vary from state to state, as well as from insurer to insurer.
Nineteen states (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia) and the District of Columbia currently have some form of hurricane or named storm deductible in place. Other states may allow insurers to include hurricane deductibles in property insurance products.
Committees Active on This Topic
Background on Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles
June 2021 Insurance Information Institute
Public Understanding of Hurricane Deductibles: Need for Consumer Education Persists
June 2017, Insurance Research Council
Hurricane Insurance Deductible Fact Sheet
November 2018, Investopedia
The Debate over Hurricane Deductibles
April 2013, CIPR Newsletter
What You Should Know About Named Storm Deductibles (NAIC, 2021)
Consumer Alert: Disaster Preparedness
May 2014, NAIC
Testimony and Speeches
Prepared remarks for the Second Annual General Insurance Exchange (Commissioner James Donelon, March 2011)
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Assistant Director of Data Coordination and Statistical Analysis