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Last Updated: 3/15/2023
The insurance department may determine that a company's financial solvency situation cannot be corrected or that a corrective plan cannot be completed successfully. In those circumstances, state regulators may determine the appropriate course of action is to place the troubled company in receivership. 

Among the typical causes of insurer insolvency are: undercapitalization; uncollectible or inflated assets; insufficient loss reserves for risks assumed; agents who misappropriated or improperly handled money belonging to the insurer; problems involving reinsurance, e.g., reinsurer insolvency, disputes, collectability, etc.; unprofitable lines of business/inappropriate underwriting or claims management; risky investments; fraudulent transactions; failure to monitor agents; and mismanagement by directors and/or officers. For more information on troubled insurance companies see Troubled Companies. 

Insurer insolvencies are governed by state law rather than federal bankruptcy law. State statutes typically provide for the appointment of the insurance commissioner as the receiver of an insurer. Although insolvency is governed by the law of the state in which the insurer is domesticated, the laws of the various states in which an insurer conducted business may also be implicated. Consequently, during the takeover and administration of an insolvent insurer, it is important for the receiver to consider the laws of those states. 


Three distinct forms—conservation, rehabilitation, and liquidation—can be distinguished in the receivership proceedings. Most states have enacted statutes that govern the conservation, rehabilitation, and liquidation of insurance companies and are patterned after three models Acts (the Uniform Insurers Liquidation Act, the Insurers Rehabilitation and Liquidation Model Act, and the Insurer Receivership Model Act) have been adopted by the NAIC. 

  • Conservation allows the receiver a period of time in which to analyze the company and its financial condition and determine whether the policyholders and creditors will be best served by liquidation, rehabilitation, or returning the company to private management. A troubled company does not move systematically from one form of receivership to another, but rather, the regulator may choose to petition for the form of receivership appropriate to the circumstances at any given time.  

  • If rehabilitation is warranted, state regulators must allege and prove a specific statutory ground in order to proceed. In rehabilitation, a plan is devised to correct the difficulties that led to the insurer being placed in receivership and return it to the marketplace. The receiver is charged with implementing the restrictions, limitations, and requirements set forth in the order of rehabilitation. The order may prohibit the insurer from writing new business or may severely limit the amount and type of new business written. Similarly, the order might impose significant restrictions or prohibit the renewal of business when the renewal is at the option of the insurer. The order may also suspend claims payments and halt the transfer of cash or loan values on life insurance contracts. The order will possibly provide that reinsurance agreements may not be canceled and that the insurer may not obtain any new reinsurance without the approval of the receiver. The receiver will be empowered under the order to seize the insurer's physical and liquid assets immediately and perform an inventory of these assets. In addition, the order will likely suspend the payment of any dividends to shareholders, affiliates, and subsidiaries. The receiver may restrict new investments and may, in fact, liquidate certain investments. If previously discussed by the regulator and agreed to by the insurer's parent or shareholders, the order may require an infusion of capital into the insurer.

  • The regulator must determine whether a rehabilitation of the company is likely to be successful or if its problems are so severe that the rehabilitation would significantly increase the risk of loss to policyholders. If the latter is true, the appropriate course of action is to liquidate the insurer. Once a petition for liquidation is filed, the company will have an opportunity to defend itself, which can result in a trial or an evidentiary hearing. After the order for liquidation is issued, the receiver is charged with the duty to secure, marshal and distribute the assets of the estate. The power to perform these duties is provided by the liquidation order and the state receivership statute. Courts have held the order of liquidation effectively cancels outstanding policies and fixes the date for ascertaining debts and claims against the insolvent insurer. However, the insolvency of a life insurer presents a unique situation. The NAIC Model Acts provide for the continuation of life, health, and annuity policies. 

The receiver organizes the assets of the insurer, determines the liabilities of the insurer to policyholders and other creditors, and distributes the assets in satisfaction of such claims in accordance with a priority-of-distribution scheme prescribed by state law. Most state insurance departments maintain a list of companies in receivership/liquidation on their website.


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